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A financial instrument or  “quasi-money” – is an asset (currency, securities, bonds, futures, options, etc…), sale or transfer of which allows to make profits. It is, in fact, any contract that results in the appearance of a specific article in the assets of one party to the contract and in the liabilities of the other party to the contract.


A CFD, or a Contract for Difference – is a guaranteed commitment of the two parties to pay the difference between the market value of the asset underlying the contract at the date of conclusion and on the day of its expiration. A CFD is a derivative financial instrument.


A share -is  a security certifying participation of its holder  in formation of funds of a company and gives the right to receive an appropriate share of its profits-dividends. Shares are bought and sold, including on Stock Exchange. The share price (rate) may differ significantly from the nominal value and  depends on the economic situation of the company (joint stock company), branding and promotional activities and exchange factors.

  • Protected shares – shares of stable income, which are usually available in the economy sectors less exposed to cyclical fluctuations.
  • Cumulative shares – shares with unpaid accumulated dividends.
  • Preferred shares – securities, the holder of which on the one hand, has special rights, and on the other hand- a number of special restrictions.
  • Common (ordinary) shares – securities providing basic rights to the company property.
  • Cyclical stocks – shares of companies whose revenues and profits are closely related to the current stage of the economic cycle of the company.


A promissory note (German: Wechsel -exchange) – is a  strictly established form certifying unconditional obligation of the issuer (promissory note) or offer to another payer (bill of exchange) to pay a sum of money in a particular place, before the prescribed bill period.  They are also divided into order  bills(to the issuer) or inscribed bills.


A bond (Latin: obligatio – obligation) – is an emission debt security that fixes the right of its holder to receive its nominal value or another equivalent property from the issuer. The bond may also provide the right of its holder to receive a fixed interest (coupon) on the nominal value of the bond or other property rights. Yield on bonds is an interest (coupon) and / or discount.


An option – is a contract in which the potential buyer or the potential seller is entitled, but not obliged, to buy or sell an asset (goods, securities) at a pre-agreed price at some date in the future stipulated by the contract or for a certain length of time.


A stock index is a measurement of the complex value of securities grouped on the basis of specific features. Typically, that is not to say that every level of a particular stock index is of the same importance, as well as the dynamics of their changes over time.


A forward – is an urgent cash transaction in which the buyer and the seller agree to deliver the sold goods on a specific date in the future, while the price of goods (sold currency rate) is established at the time of the transaction.


Futures – is a derivative, fixed-term contract of purchase and sale of the underlying asset at the conclusion of which the parties (the buyer and the seller) agree only on the level of prices and the delivery time.

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